Once smokers children may remain smokers. Healthy children of smokers are sick more frequently primarily respiratory illness than those of nonsmokers. There is less preeclamptic toxemia in smokers than in nonsmokers, but a higher incidence of antepartum hemorrhage and placental separation. Pregnancies of smoking mothers show about the same increase in infant wastage as pregnancies at high altitudes. Intrauterine hypoxia seems responsible for the growth retardation in smokers' babies as in babies of mothers living at high altitudes. Concerning long-term effects, smoking during pregnancy seems to be associated with a slight impairment of mental and physical growth. Smoking parents and teachers stimulate their children and pupils to start smoking. This observation is strongly supported by animal experiments.
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