An additional model Model IV. In agreement with this hypothesis, there are data that indirectly indicate that male-biased genes originate more often through gene duplication than unbiased or female-biased genes [ 84 , 94 , 97 , ]. These new male-biased genes are either translocated, lost or may lose the sex-biased expression as the trend reverses for older male-biased genes. While particular examples of sex-specific duplicate genes have been accumulating for a long time e. Contrary to this expectation, demasculinization of the X chromosome is also observed in gonadectomized flies [ 2 ]. All the aforementioned hypotheses, although satisfactory in some instances, cannot cope with the total complexity of this phenomenon Table 1. Hence, gene duplication is a way of not only generating sex-specific genes but preserving the functions of these genes in nonrecombining chromosomes. The advent of the first genome sequences also revealed that gene duplication has played an important role in the distribution of sex-biased genes.
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